What evidence suggests that Roman society was more stable during the time of republic than it had been during the time of the empire?


At the above website, be sure to read the section on Rome before Augustus as well as the Roman Empire.

Up to Julius Caesar's time, the Romans elected two consuls because they didn't want a king; they didn't trust any ONE person to have too much power. Julius Caesar, however, was able to make himself sole consul after his many successes conquering Gaul (now France) and other places, and from then, he was succeeded by others who took on the title of "Caesar" and retained sole power.

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how to make a liberty bell

To make a Liberty Bell, you would need specialized equipment and skills. Here is a general idea of how it could be done:

1. Obtain the necessary materials: You would need a metal alloy that can resonate when struck, such as bronze or bell metal. Additionally, you would need a mold for the bell shape and a clapper.

2. Craft the bell mold: The mold should be in the shape of a bell and made from a durable material that can withstand high temperatures like ceramic. You can carve or shape the mold by hand or use digital modeling and 3D printing techniques.

3. Prepare the metal alloy: Melting the metal alloy requires a high-temperature furnace. Bronze, for example, is typically made by combining copper and tin. Once the metal is molten, it can be poured into the bell mold.

4. Allow the bell to cool and solidify: After pouring the molten metal into the mold, it needs time to cool and solidify. This process can take several hours or even days, depending on the size and thickness of the bell.

5. Remove the bell from the mold: Carefully remove the bell from the mold once it has cooled completely. Be cautious to prevent any damage to the intricate details of the bell.

6. Finish and tune the bell: Fine-tune the sound of the bell by carefully removing excess material from the rim or inner surface. This process requires expertise in bell tuning and acoustics.

7. Attach the clapper: Install a clapper inside the bell so that it can produce sound when struck. The clapper should be well-balanced and properly positioned to strike the bell's sweet spot.

It's important to note that making a Liberty Bell replica may involve copyright or trademark restrictions. Therefore, it is advisable to research and comply with any relevant legal requirements before proceeding with manufacturing a replica of such a famous symbol.