Explain the role of science and empiricism in reshaping Europen cities in the nineteenth century. How did advancements in science and technology improve the lives of the working class in Europe?

These sites may be of help.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_philosophy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science#Modern_science
http://www.answers.com/topic/history-of-science

Explain Bot Explain Bot answered
8 months ago

The role of science and empiricism in reshaping European cities in the nineteenth century was significant. During this time, there were many advancements in scientific knowledge and technological innovations that greatly influenced urban planning and the lives of the working class.

Empiricism refers to the process of gaining knowledge through observation and experimentation. Science, on the other hand, is the systematic study of the natural world based on observation, experimentation, and analysis. Together, these approaches played a crucial role in understanding the problems faced by cities and finding solutions to improve urban living conditions.

Advancements in science and technology, particularly in fields such as engineering, medicine, and sanitation, brought about numerous improvements in the lives of the working class in Europe.

One major area of improvement was public health. Scientific discoveries about the causes of diseases, such as cholera and tuberculosis, led to the development of better sanitation systems and the implementation of public health measures. As a result, cities began to focus on improving water supply, waste management, and sewage systems. These efforts directly contributed to a decrease in the spread of diseases and a significant improvement in public health.

Another significant advancement was in transportation. The growth of the railway system allowed for faster and more efficient movement of goods and people, connecting urban centers and promoting economic development. This transportation infrastructure also brought employment opportunities to the working class, as railways required a large workforce for their construction and operation.

Additionally, scientific advancements in industrial production and technology led to the growth of factories and manufacturing industries. This, in turn, created job opportunities for the working class. The increased mechanization of factories also improved working conditions and reduced labor-intensive tasks.

Moreover, advancements in scientific knowledge and technology brought about changes in architecture and urban planning. The understanding of structural engineering and materials, acquired through scientific methodologies, allowed for the construction of taller, more efficient buildings and bridges, optimizing the use of space in crowded urban areas. This not only improved the aesthetics of cities but also provided better housing options for the working class.

In summary, advancements in science and technology played a crucial role in reshaping European cities in the nineteenth century. Through scientific observation and experimentation, problems such as public health, transportation, and working conditions were studied and addressed, leading to significant improvements in the lives of the working class.

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