what does manipulated varible mean? what does responding varible mean? what does hypothisis mean?

In an experiment, a manipulated variable is one that can be easily changed by the xperimenter, such as the length of a pendulum The responding variable will be something that is the measured response to the change, such as the period of oscillation of a pendulum

A summary of experimental terms might be helpful.

An independent/manipulated variable is the potential stimulus or cause, usually directly manipulated by the experimenter, so it could also be called a manipulative variable.

A dependent/responding variable is the response or measure of results.

Extraneous variables — other than the independent variable — potentially can affect the dependent variable, so they must be controlled. If possible, you try to keep them constant between the experimental and control group.

The experimental group receives the independent variable.

The control group is similar to experimental, except it does not receive the independent variable. Extraneous variables are balanced between experimental and control groups.

Types of experiments

1. Single blind gives the control group a placebo — a substance that is inert, it has no physical effect. Subjects don't know if they are in experimental or control group to reduce placebo effect, a change in behavior solely due to believing that you are getting the independent variable.

2. Double blind keeps both subjects and experimenter ignorant of group setup. Distribution of the independent variable and placebo is controlled by third party. This controls for experimenter bias and self-fulfilling prophecy. This means that experimenters with particular expectations are likely to consciously or unconsciously to bias the experiment and influence it to conform to their expectations.

As an example, suppose you want to find out if fluorides reduce dental cavities. Your hypothesis is this statement that your experiment would support or contradict. You would find two groups, trying to control the extraneous variables. Extraneous variables are found by surveying previous research in the area. In this case, you would match the groups in terms of previous history of cavities, diet and dental hygiene habits including how and how often they brush their teeth.

The experimental group would get toothpaste with the independent variable, the fluoride, while the control group would not have the fluoride in their toothpaste. The toothpaste without the fluoride would be the placebo.

The dependent variable would be the number of cavities after participating in the experiment for a time. The dependent variable indicates the results, but it is not the results. At the end of the experiment, both groups could have no change in cavities or one of the groups could have a greater reduction in cavities. (Of course, if the fluoride increased cavities, you wouldn't want to use it.) All of these varied results would be indicated in terms of the dependent variable.

If only the subjects do not know who is getting the fluoride, it is a single blind experiment. If both the subjects and experimenter do not know, it is a double blind.

I hope this helps a little more. Thanks for asking.

A hypothesis is a statement or prediction that can be tested through experimentation. It is an educated guess about the outcome of an experiment based on prior knowledge or observations. In scientific research, a hypothesis is often stated in an "if-then" format, where the "if" part describes the independent variable or condition being manipulated, and the "then" part describes the expected effect on the dependent variable.

To formulate a hypothesis, you need to:

1. Identify the problem or question you want to investigate.
2. Conduct background research to gather information and understand the topic.
3. Formulate an educated guess or prediction about the outcome based on the information gathered.
4. Write the hypothesis in a clear and specific manner that can be tested.

For example:
"If plants are given more sunlight, then their growth rate will increase."

In this hypothesis, the manipulated variable is the amount of sunlight given to the plants, and the responding variable is the growth rate of the plants. Through experimentation, you can test this hypothesis and analyze the results to determine if the hypothesis is supported or refuted.

Remember that a hypothesis is not a definitive answer but rather a proposition that can be tested and evaluated through experimentation.