If water were not a polar molecule and could not form hydrogen bonds, how would this change the structure and density of ice? Why would change? How would this affect the organisms living in lakes and ponds?

1. It would be heavier than water and sink.

2. If ice were on the bottom, how would that effect life in lakes?

lakes with sunken ice would remain frozen longer, possably never thawing completly. How wold this affect everything ?

If water were not a polar molecule and could not form hydrogen bonds, it would indeed have an impact on the structure and density of ice. Understanding why this change happens requires some understanding of the unique properties of water.

Water molecules are polar, meaning they have a positive charge on one end (hydrogen) and a negative charge on the other end (oxygen). This polarity allows water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with each other. Hydrogen bonds are relatively weak individual bonds, but when large numbers of them form between water molecules, they result in a significant collective effect. These hydrogen bonds are responsible for some of water's distinct properties, including its ability to exist in all three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) at relatively moderate temperatures.

In the case of ice formation, water molecules arrange themselves in a hexagonal structure due to the formation of hydrogen bonds. These bonds hold water molecules apart in a lattice-like structure, creating empty spaces or gaps between the molecules. This structure results in ice having a lower density compared to water.

If water were not a polar molecule and could not form hydrogen bonds, the ice formed would not have the same hexagonal lattice structure. Instead, the molecules would be closer together, likely resulting in a higher density. This means that if we were to freeze non-polar water, it would be denser than its liquid form and sink, rather than float like ice formed from polar water.

Now, let's consider the impact of this change on organisms living in lakes and ponds. In bodies of water, ice usually forms on the surface and floats because it is less dense than the liquid water beneath it. This floating ice acts as insulation, preventing the water below from freezing completely.

However, if ice were heavier and sank to the bottom, it would cover the entire water column. This would create insulation in the opposite direction, trapping the cold temperatures below the ice and preventing the water from thawing fully. Lakes with sunken ice would remain frozen for longer periods or potentially never thaw completely.

This extended period of frozen conditions could have significant consequences for organisms living in lakes and ponds. Many aquatic organisms, such as fish, algae, and plants, rely on the ability of lakes and ponds to thaw seasonally. This thaw allows for the cycling of nutrients and oxygen, as well as providing access to sunlight, which is crucial for photosynthesis.

If lakes and ponds remained frozen for extended periods, organisms would face challenges accessing nutrients, light, and oxygen. This could lead to decreased productivity, reduced food availability, and potentially impact the survival and reproduction of these organisms.

Overall, the change in ice structure and density due to the absence of water's polarity and hydrogen bonding would cause ice to sink and potentially result in lakes and ponds remaining frozen for longer periods. This would have adverse effects on the organisms relying on seasonal thawing for their survival and productivity.