Which continent is now part of Eurasia but, according to theory, was originally a separate continent that moved northward into its present position?

Indian subcontinent

The Indian Subcontinent was once a part of Eurasia and then as time passed, India moved northward into it's present day location.

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The continent that you are referring to is India. According to the theory of plate tectonics, India was originally a separate landmass known as the Indian Plate. It was situated south of the equator and was entirely separate from the Eurasian Plate. However, around 50 million years ago, the Indian Plate started moving northward due to the process of continental drift.

The movement of the Indian Plate was initiated by the geological process known as subduction, in which one tectonic plate is forced beneath another plate. The Indian Plate began to converge with the Eurasian Plate, causing a collision. This collision resulted in the uplift of the Himalayan mountain range and the formation of the Tibetan Plateau.

Over millions of years, the Indian Plate continued its northward journey and eventually merged with the Eurasian Plate. This convergence resulted in the complete amalgamation of India with Eurasia, forming the vast landmass we now refer to as Eurasia.

To find this information, you can consult various geological and geographical resources such as scientific papers, textbooks, or reputable online sources that explain the theory of plate tectonics and the geological history of the Indian subcontinent.