DNA codes for mRNA, which is then translated into polypeptides,which are strands of amino acids. The DNA sequence below codes for the following amino acids: methionine-valine-glycine-alanine-alanine-serine

What effect would the addition of the nucleotides adenine-cytosine-tgymine nucleotide after the fist nucleotide in the above sequence have on the amino acid sequence? what effect would the deletion of the eighth nucleotide(cytosine) have on the polypeptide produced? what effect would changing the sixth nucleotide from an adenine to a thymine? please can anyone help me answer any of these questions?

To understand the effects of changes in a DNA sequence on the amino acid sequence, we need to consider the process of transcription and translation.

Transcription is the process by which DNA is converted into mRNA. During transcription, one strand of the DNA molecule (the template strand) is used as a template to synthesize a complementary mRNA molecule.

Translation is the process by which the mRNA sequence is decoded and a polypeptide chain (amino acid sequence) is produced. The mRNA sequence is read in groups of three nucleotides called codons. Each codon codes for a specific amino acid.

Now let's analyze the effects of the changes you mentioned:

1. Addition of adenine-cytosine-thymine after the first nucleotide:
In this case, the mRNA sequence would be AUG GCU AAA CCACGCCCGA UCA. Since the addition occurs after the first nucleotide, it would shift the reading frame of the codons, resulting in a completely different amino acid sequence. The entire sequence downstream of the addition would be affected.

2. Deletion of the eighth nucleotide (cytosine):
If we remove the eighth nucleotide (cytosine) from the sequence TAC CAA CCA CGC CGC UCA, the resulting sequence would be TAC CAA CAC GCC UCA. This deletion would also shift the reading frame of the codons, resulting in a different amino acid sequence. All the codons downstream of the deletion would be affected.

3. Changing the sixth nucleotide from adenine to thymine:
If we change the sixth nucleotide from adenine to thymine in the sequence TAC CAA CCA CGC CGC UCA, the resulting sequence would be TAC CAT CCA CGC CGC UCA. This change would alter a single codon, and therefore, a single amino acid in the polypeptide chain. Only the amino acid coded by the codon UCA would be affected.

It's important to note that these changes can have significant consequences on the function and structure of the resulting protein. Even small alterations in the DNA sequence can lead to the production of dysfunctional or non-functional proteins.