Critical to life is the function of the cell membrane and its ability to move materials across the cell membrane. Define each of the following in detail using diagrams to aid the understanding of the process. a) diffusion b) osmosis c) facilitated diffusion d) active transport

a) Diffusion:

Diffusion is the process by which molecules or ions move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This movement occurs due to the random motion and collisions of particles.

Here's how diffusion works:
1. Initially, there is a concentration gradient, meaning there is a difference in the concentration of a particular substance between two areas. This concentration gradient creates a net movement of particles.

2. The particles of the substance in the area of higher concentration have more kinetic energy and move randomly. As they move, they collide with each other and spread out.

3. Over time, the particles spread out evenly throughout the available space, resulting in a state of equilibrium where the concentration becomes equal.

Imagine a container divided into two chambers, separated by a cell membrane. Initially, the substance is highly concentrated on one side (Side A) and less concentrated on the other side (Side B). As time passes, the particles randomly move, going from Side A to Side B and vice versa, until the concentration becomes equal on both sides.

b) Osmosis:
Osmosis is a special type of diffusion that specifically refers to the movement of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane, such as the cell membrane.

Here's how osmosis works:
1. Similar to diffusion, osmosis occurs due to a concentration gradient. In this case, it refers to the difference in the concentration of water molecules on either side of the membrane.

2. When there is a higher concentration of water on one side of the membrane and a lower concentration on the other side, water molecules move from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration.

3. The direction of water movement continues until the concentration of water becomes equal on both sides or until the water potential (the tendency of water to move) across the membrane is balanced.

Consider a cell surrounded by an extracellular fluid. If the concentration of water molecules inside the cell is higher than outside, water molecules will move from outside to inside the cell until the concentration of water becomes equal inside and outside the cell.

c) Facilitated Diffusion:
Facilitated diffusion is a type of passive transport that relies on specific transport proteins present in the cell membrane. It allows larger or charged molecules to pass through the membrane with the help of these proteins.

Here's how facilitated diffusion works:
1. Similar to diffusion, facilitated diffusion relies on a concentration gradient, but it involves the help of specific carrier proteins or channel proteins to move substances across the membrane.

2. The carrier proteins bind to the specific molecule, changing its shape and allowing it to pass through the membrane. Alternatively, channel proteins provide a pathway for certain molecules to move through.

3. Facilitated diffusion does not require energy as the movement occurs along the concentration gradient. It only increases the rate at which certain substances can cross the membrane.

In facilitated diffusion, specific carrier proteins or channel proteins in the cell membrane assist the movement of larger or charged molecules across the membrane. These proteins facilitate the movement of the molecules by changing shape or providing a pathway.

d) Active Transport:
Active transport is a process that allows cells to move molecules across the membrane against their concentration gradient using energy (usually in the form of ATP) and specific carrier proteins.

Here's how active transport works:
1. Active transport occurs when a cell needs to move molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration, against their natural flow.

2. Carrier proteins called pumps are responsible for active transport. These pumps use energy from ATP to move the molecules uphill against the concentration gradient.

3. The energy from ATP is used to change the shape of the carrier protein, allowing it to bind to the specific molecule and transport it across the membrane.

Active transport involves carrier proteins (pumps) that require energy from ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient. The carrier protein changes shape, allowing it to transport the molecules across the membrane.