1. name and define in detail the four organic compound groups that make up the chemistry of living things.

Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. See Part IV of http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/people/brs/biol1a/Lect2.html for specifics

There are four main organic compound groups that make up the chemistry of living things: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. Let's define each of them in detail:

1. Lipids: Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids. Lipids serve various functions in living organisms, such as energy storage, insulation, and protection of organs. They also play important roles in cell signaling and regulation.

2. Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1. They are the primary source of energy for most organisms. Carbohydrates can exist in different forms, including monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (two sugar units bonded together), and polysaccharides (longer chains of sugar units). Examples of carbohydrates include glucose, sucrose, and glycogen.

3. Proteins: Proteins are large, complex molecules composed of amino acids. They play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as enzyme catalysis, cell structure, transport, and immune response. Proteins can have diverse structures and functions due to the various combinations and arrangements of the 20 different amino acids. They are often referred to as the "building blocks" of life.

4. Nucleic Acids: Nucleic acids are macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information. There are two types of nucleic acids: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA carries genetic instructions for the development, functioning, and reproduction of all known organisms. RNA plays a vital role in protein synthesis and carries out diversified functions in gene expression and regulation.

To learn more about the specifics and detailed structures of these organic compound groups, you can refer to Part IV of the following source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/people/brs/biol1a/Lect2.html