what a vibrating object dose to the air particles around it?

The vibrating object sends out a pressure-variation (sound) wave of compressions and rarefactions, with a frequency equal to the vibration rate.

To understand what a vibrating object does to the air particles around it, we need to consider how sound propagates through a medium like air. When the object vibrates, it creates a disturbance in the air, which generates sound waves.

As the object moves back and forth, it pushes and pulls on the surrounding air particles. This motion creates a series of compressions and rarefactions. During a compression, the air particles are pushed closer together, resulting in a region of higher pressure. In contrast, during a rarefaction, the air particles spread out, creating a region of lower pressure.

The vibrating object continues to produce these compressions and rarefactions, generating a repeating pattern of high and low-pressure regions. These pressure variations form a sound wave that propagates outward from the vibrating object.

As the sound wave travels through the air, it carries the energy of the vibrating object. The air particles near the sound wave's path are influenced by these pressure changes. They oscillate back and forth in response to the changing pressure, similar to how the original object vibrates.

In summary, a vibrating object causes the air particles around it to undergo compressions and rarefactions, generating a sound wave that carries energy through the air. The air particles themselves oscillate in response to the pressure variations created by the vibrating object.