15.Compare and contrast the traits of viruses and bacteria. Is a virus considered a living thing? Explain your answer in 3–5 sentences.(4 points)
16.Hemophilia is a hereditary bleeding disorder that primarily affects males. In 3–5 sentences, summarize why this condition typically affects males more than females.(4 points)
17.The lactose (lac) operon in E. coli is an example of a gene that is repressed when lactose is not available in a cell. In 3-5 sentences, explain what this means, using correct terminology.(4 points)
18.Homozygous tall pea plants look the same as heterozygous tall pea plants. Formulate a pollination experiment to identify whether a tall pea plant is homozygous or heterozygous. Explain your answer in 3-5 sentences.(4 points)
19.In 3–5 sentences, explain how genetic modification helps provide food for a growing population.(4 point
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15. Although both viruses and bacteria are microscopic, they have distinct differences in their traits. Bacteria are single-celled organisms that can live and reproduce independently. They have their own cellular structure, including a cell wall, cytoplasm, and genetic material. Viruses, on the other hand, are not considered living things because they lack cellular structure and cannot reproduce on their own. They are essentially genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat and require a host cell to replicate.
16. Hemophilia is caused by the absence or deficiency of certain proteins that help in blood clotting. The genes responsible for producing these proteins are located on the X chromosome. Since males have only one X chromosome, they are more likely to be affected by hemophilia if they inherit the faulty gene. Females, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, so even if one of the X chromosomes carries the mutation, the other can usually compensate and produce enough of the clotting protein to prevent symptoms.
17. The lactose (lac) operon in E. coli is a segment of DNA that contains the genes necessary for the metabolism of lactose. When lactose is not available in the cell, the gene expression of these lactose-metabolizing enzymes is repressed, meaning they are not produced. This repression occurs because a repressor protein binds to the operator region of the lactose operon, blocking the RNA polymerase from transcribing the genes required for lactose metabolism.
18. To determine whether a tall pea plant is homozygous or heterozygous, you can perform a test cross pollination. This involves crossing the tall pea plant with a known homozygous recessive short plant. If all the offspring are tall, then the tall pea plant is most likely homozygous. If some of the offspring are short, then the tall pea plant is likely heterozygous. This test cross allows for the expression of the recessive trait, which helps determine the genetic makeup of the tall plant.
19. Genetic modification, or genetic engineering, allows for the intentional alteration of an organism's DNA to introduce desirable traits. In agriculture, it has been used to improve crop yields, increase resistance to pests and diseases, enhance nutritional content, and improve adaptability to different environmental conditions. By modifying the genes of crops, scientists can create plants that are more productive, resilient, and nutritionally valuable. This helps address the challenges of feeding a growing population by ensuring more efficient and sustainable agricultural practices.
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15. To compare and contrast the traits of viruses and bacteria, you can start by researching their characteristics and structures. Look for information on how they replicate, their genetic material, their size, their ability to survive outside a host, and their impact on living organisms. Additionally, you can explore the differences in their modes of transmission and the types of diseases they cause. Regarding whether a virus is considered a living thing, there is an ongoing debate among scientists. Some argue that viruses do not meet the criteria for life as they are incapable of independent replication without a host cell, while others argue that they exhibit certain life-like characteristics. Research different perspectives on this topic to form your answer.
16. Hemophilia is an X-linked recessive disorder, which means the gene responsible for the disorder is located on the X chromosome. Males have only one X chromosome, so if they inherit the faulty gene, they will develop hemophilia. On the other hand, females have two X chromosomes, so they need to inherit the faulty gene on both X chromosomes to develop the disorder. Since inheritance of the faulty gene on both X chromosomes is less common, hemophilia typically affects males more than females.
17. The lac operon in E. coli is a segment of DNA that contains genes responsible for lactose metabolism. When lactose is not available in a cell, the lac operon is repressed, meaning the genes within the operon are not actively transcribed and translated. This repression is often controlled by a repressor protein that binds to the operator region of the operon and prevents RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter, thereby inhibiting gene expression. In the presence of lactose, the repressor protein is inhibited, allowing RNA polymerase to bind and transcribe the genes required for lactose metabolism.
18. To determine whether a tall pea plant is homozygous or heterozygous for the tall trait, you can perform a test cross. Take the tall pea plant and cross it with a known homozygous recessive short plant. If all the offspring are tall, then the tall plant is most likely homozygous dominant (TT). However, if any of the offspring are short, then the tall plant is heterozygous (Tt). This is because a heterozygous plant will have a 50% chance of passing on the recessive allele, resulting in some short offspring.
19. Genetic modification, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), can help provide food for a growing population in several ways. GMO crops can be engineered to be more resistant to pests, diseases, and adverse environmental conditions, leading to increased crop yields. They can also be modified to have improved nutritional profiles or to be more tolerant of herbicides, reducing the need for intensive pesticide use. Additionally, genetic modification can enhance the storage and transport qualities of food, reducing spoilage and waste. However, it is important to note that there are ongoing debates and ethical considerations surrounding the use of GMOs in food production.
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