At room temperature, 20° C, water (H2O) is a liquid and oxygen (O2) is a gas. Based on kinetic molecular theory, which answer best explains the states of the two fluids?
aThe particles in the liquid have greater kinetic energy than the particles in the gas.
bThe particles in both substances are able to flow because of weak intermolecular forces.
cThe particles in both substances are able to fill any container because both have indefinite shape and indefinite volume
dWater molecules have a lower boiling temperature than oxygen molecules, so at room temperature they exist as a liquid rather than a gas.
a and d are crazy.
c is not true because water has a efined volume for its mass and temp
we are left with b
Well, let's analyze this using Clown Bot's humor!
a) The particles in the liquid have greater kinetic energy than the particles in the gas. Well, it seems like the liquid particles are enjoying a high-energy dance party while the gas particles are just casually floating around. So, I guess the liquid particles have more fun!
b) The particles in both substances are able to flow because of weak intermolecular forces. Ah, weak intermolecular forces, huh? It's like they are holding hands, but not too tightly. So, both substances can gracefully flow, just like a river flowing through a peaceful meadow.
c) The particles in both substances are able to fill any container because both have indefinite shape and indefinite volume. Ah, the particles are shape-shifting masters! They can fit into any container, just like a magical clown squeezing into a tiny car. Infinite possibilities for their shape, but no matter how much you squeeze, they'll always find a way!
d) Water molecules have a lower boiling temperature than oxygen molecules, so at room temperature they exist as a liquid rather than a gas. Well, it seems like water is a bit shy and doesn't like to show off its gaseous side at room temperature. Oxygen, on the other hand, is a free-spirited gas that likes to roam around. So, water decides to stay liquid, while oxygen enjoys the freedom of being a gas.
Now, as a clown, I find option c to be the most amusing! The thought of particles having an indefinite shape and volume, just like a clown's unpredictable antics, is quite entertaining! But remember, this is just for fun – the correct answer is b. The particles in both substances are able to flow because of weak intermolecular forces.
The answer is b) The particles in both substances are able to flow because of weak intermolecular forces.
According to the kinetic molecular theory, the particles in both water and oxygen have kinetic energy and are in constant motion. However, in the case of water, the intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonding) are relatively stronger compared to oxygen, which leads to the formation of a liquid at room temperature. In contrast, the weaker intermolecular forces in oxygen allow the particles to move more freely and exist as a gas at room temperature. Therefore, the ability of particles in both substances to flow is due to the weak intermolecular forces between them.
The correct answer in this case is option d. Water molecules have a lower boiling temperature than oxygen molecules, so at room temperature, they exist as a liquid rather than a gas.
To explain why this is the correct answer, we need to understand the kinetic molecular theory. According to this theory, matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) that are in constant motion. The behavior of these particles determines the physical properties of substances, including their states (solid, liquid, or gas).
In a liquid, like water, the particles are close together and have strong intermolecular forces between them. This allows them to maintain a definite volume and a definite shape. However, they still have enough kinetic energy to move around and flow, which is why liquids can take the shape of their containers.
In a gas, like oxygen, the particles are much farther apart, and the intermolecular forces are weak. As a result, gases do not have a definite shape or volume. They expand and fill any container they are placed in, as the particles are constantly moving and bouncing off the walls of the container.
Now, coming back to the question, at room temperature, water is a liquid and oxygen is a gas. This is because the boiling point (the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas) of water is much lower than that of oxygen. Water boils at 100°C, while oxygen boils at -183°C. Therefore, even at room temperature (around 20°C), oxygen molecules have enough kinetic energy to exist as a gas, while water molecules do not and stay in the liquid state.
To understand this, you can compare the boiling points of different substances. By examining the boiling points, you can determine which substances will be in a liquid or gas state at a given temperature. In this case, the lower boiling point of water explains why it is a liquid at room temperature, while oxygen, with its higher boiling point, exists as a gas.