You may have observed that a car with windows closed sitting under the sun on a hot day, can get extremely hot in the interior, even hotter than the outside air. Explain this in terms of heat and

temperature concepts. How is this similar to greenhouse effect? To global warming?

The excessive heat buildup inside a car with windows closed on a hot day can be explained using the concepts of heat and temperature. When sunlight enters the car, it gets absorbed by various objects, such as the dashboard, seats, and floor. These objects then heat up and radiate the absorbed energy in the form of heat.

The reason the interior of the car can become even hotter than the outside air is due to the greenhouse effect. The windows of a car act as a barrier to the escape of heat. Sunlight easily passes through the windows and heats the objects inside the car. However, when these heated objects radiate the energy back out, it gets trapped by the windows, preventing its escape. This trapped heat continues to accumulate, leading to a significant increase in temperature within the car's interior.

The greenhouse effect that occurs in a car is similar to the natural greenhouse effect on Earth. In the Earth's atmosphere, certain gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), act like the windows of a car, allowing sunlight to enter but limiting the escape of heat. These greenhouse gases effectively trap heat radiated from the Earth's surface, causing the planet's average temperature to rise. This is what leads to global warming, the long-term trend of increasing average temperatures on Earth.

While the greenhouse effect in a car is a localized and temporary phenomenon, global warming is a larger-scale and long-term effect impacting the entire planet. The excessive accumulation of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere, primarily due to human activities like burning fossil fuels, has enhanced the natural greenhouse effect. This has caused a significant rise in global temperatures, disrupting ecosystems, and contributing to various environmental challenges associated with climate change.