I am taking courses in Criminal Justice. I flunked 3 courses in English. What is a comma splice? What is a dangler,fragment? Also how do you write a bussiness letter? Please help me so I can get my associates degree. Thank you ANITA GUNTER

A comma splice occurs when you put a comma between two sentences instead of the needed period and capital letter.
EX: Jack ran up the hill, Jill came after him.
CORRECTED: Jack ran up the hill. Jill came after him. OR Jack ran up the hill, and Jill came after him.

A fragment is when you write a partial or incomplete sentence. It probably just needs to be attached to the sentence before or after it.
EX: While he was driving.
EX: Hiding in the closet.

CORRECTED: While he was driving, he turned his cell phone off.
CORRECTED: She was frightened by the thunder and lightning and was hiding in the closet.

A dangler is when a modifier (usually a phrase) is so far out of place, it doesn't make sense. All modifiers need to be a close to what they are modifying as possible.

EX: To finish the New York City Marathon, training on a daily basis must take place before the race. [Any modifier like the "to finish..." phrase needs to be modifying the subject of the sentence because the subject is the first word or so in the main clause. This one doesn't, however. It's impossible for "training" (the subject) to "finish" anything!]
CORRECTED: To finish the New York City Marathon, runners must train on a daily basis before the race. [Now the subject is "runners" and the "to finish..." phrase makes sense -- the runners are the ones who are working to finish the race.]

Here are two websites for you. The first one is for help with grammatical things like what you have asked. Click on the Word & Sentence Level section to find the different categories.

This second website will help you with all things connected with writing business letters -- format, content, tone, etc.
The first section is on resumes and letters for a job search, but scroll down a bit and you'll find General Business Writing Issues, as well as Letters, Memos and Reports.

This second website has a really good grammar section, too. Here's that URL:
Scroll down to find the different terms you need help with.


In this sentence above -- "All modifiers need to be a close to what they are modifying as possible" -- the wording should be "as close to what..." Sorry about the typo. =)

I need help with an essay that I have to do about disadvantages of television.

To write an essay about the disadvantages of television, you can follow these steps:

1. Start with an introduction: Begin by introducing the topic and providing some general background information about television. Also, clearly state your thesis statement, which will outline the main points of your essay.

2. Develop your body paragraphs: In each paragraph, focus on one specific disadvantage of television. Start with a topic sentence that states the main idea of the paragraph. Then, provide evidence or examples to support your point. You can use research findings, statistics, personal anecdotes, or expert opinions to strengthen your arguments.

3. Use transitional words: To improve the flow and coherence of your essay, use transitional words and phrases to connect your ideas and make your essay easier to read. For instance, when presenting additional points, you can use words like "furthermore," "moreover," or "in addition." On the other hand, when presenting contrasting ideas, you can use words like "however," "on the other hand," or "nevertheless."

4. Acknowledge counterarguments: To strengthen your essay, address counterarguments or opposing views. This will show that you have considered alternative perspectives. Refute the counterarguments by presenting evidence and explaining why your points are stronger.

5. Conclude your essay: Summarize the main points you made in your essay and restate your thesis statement in a new way. Avoid introducing new information in the conclusion. Instead, provide a final thought or reflection on the topic.

6. Revise and edit: After completing your essay, thoroughly review it for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors. Also, check the overall structure and coherence of your essay. Consider seeking feedback from a peer or instructor to get additional perspectives and make any necessary revisions.

Remember to properly cite any sources you use in your essay using a citation style such as APA or MLA. This will give credit to the original authors and avoid plagiarism.

Good luck with your essay, and if you have any specific questions or need further assistance, feel free to ask!